Full metadata record
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorChakraborty, Swatilekha-
dc.contributor.authorBhojwani, Rishabh-
dc.rightsCopyright Universidad Católica de Colombia 2018spa
dc.rights.accessrightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessspa
dc.description.abstractLa Inteligencia Artificial (IA) ha sido central en el diálogo sobre un marco legal que aborde la creación de un equilibrio entre la IA y los derechos humanos por parte de los gobiernos del mundo. En 1997, Gary Kasparov, Gran Maestro y campeón mundial de ajedrez, fue derrotado por Deep Blue, una computadora rectangular negra desarrollada por IBM Inc. Una nueva era ha comenzado ante los ojos del mundo cuando una máquina derrotó a una de las personas más brillantes e inteligentes del planeta en uno de los juegos más intelectualmente desafiantes, jamás creados por el hombre. Después de una amplia discusión de los pros y contras de la inteligencia artificial con respecto a los derechos humanos, la creación y uso cada vez mayor de la AI ha generado momentum para la necesaria regulación de la industria de la inteligencia artificial. Una cobertura más amplia y una equidad sustancial mediante la provisión de recursos legales contra diferentes tipos de violaciones de derechos humanos en el sector servicios y la industria laboral han demostrado ser una necesidad importante. El uso de la IA tiene sus proponentes y oponentes; sin embargo, algunas formas de IA son importantes y deseables para una evolución humana tecnológicamente moderna. No obstante, la inquietante pregunta que surge hoy es si, al transferir la experiencia del pasado al futuro, el desempleo masivo, la pobreza masiva y las distorsiones sociales seguirán siendo un posible escenario para el nuevo mundo, un mundo donde los robots, los sistemas inteligentes y los algoritmos desempeñarán un papel cada vez más central. Este artículo aborda un análisis crítico de los efectos de la IA sobre los derechos humanos, examinando estructuras económicas, relaciones y perfiles de trabajo y modelos ya establecidos de horarios de trabajo y remuneración, que sufrirán cambios importantes debido al mayor uso de la IA. Al desmitificar precedentes recientes en el ámbito internacional, los autores intentan arrojar luz sobre el impacto fundamental de los nuevos desarrollos técnicos sobre el mercado laboral global en los próximos años, no solo en trabajos industriales, sino en tareas humanas en el sector servicios que son consideradas “intocables”. Por lo tanto, considerando las dos caras de la moneda, el artículo discute de manera concisa la polaridad entre la ausencia de un reconocimiento legal de la IA y su impactospa
dc.publisherUniversidad Católica de Colombia. Facultad de Derechospa
dc.date.accessioned2018-08-14T22:06:22Z-
dc.date.available2018-08-14T22:06:22Z-
dc.date.issued2018-08-
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfspa
dc.identifier.citationChakraborty, S. & Bhojwani R. (2018). Artificial intelligence and human rights: are they convergent or parallel to each other?. Novum Jus: Revista Especializada en Sociología Jurídica y Política, 12(2), 13-38. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.14718/NovumJus.2018.12.2.2spa
dc.identifier.issn1692-6013-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10983/16334-
dc.language.isoengspa
dc.relation.ispartofNovum Jus: Revista Especializada en Sociología Jurídica y Política; Vol. 12, no. 2 (jul.- dic. 2018); p. 13-38-
dc.typeArtículo de revistaspa
dc.titleArtificial intelligence and human rights: are they convergent or parallel to each other?spa
dc.title.alternativeInteligencia artificial y derechos humanos: ¿son convergentes o paralelos entre sí?spa
dc.description.abstractenglishArtificial Intelligence (AI) has been central to the dialogue engaged in a statutory framework addressing the creation of a balance between AI and human rights by governments across the globe. In 1997, Gary Kasparov, chess Grand Master and world champion, was beaten by Deep Blue, a black rectangular computer developed by IBM Inc. A new era has begun in front of the whole world when a machine defeated one of the brightest and most intelligent people on the planet, in one of the most intellectually challenging games ever created by men. After discussing a plethora of pros and cons of AI regarding human rights, the creation and increasing usage of AI has gained momentum for a necessary regulation of the AI industry. A wider coverage and substantial equity through providing legal recourse to different types of violations of human rights in the service and labor industry has proved to be the need of the hour. AI usage has its proponents and opponents; however, some forms of AI are both important and desirable for a technologically modern human evolution. Nonetheless, the disturbing question that arises today is whether, when transferring the experience of the past to the future, mass unemployment, mass poverty, and social distortions are still a possible scenario for the new world, a world where robots, intelligent systems, and algorithms play an increasingly central role. This paper engages in a critical analysis of the effects of AI on human rights through the lenses of economic structures, working relationships, job profiles, and well-established working time and remuneration models, which will undergo major changes due to increased AI usage. By demystifying recent precedents in the international arena, the paper seeks to throw light on the fundamental impact of new technical developments on the global labor market in the next few years, not just on industrial jobs, but on the core of human tasks in the service sector that are considered “untouchable.” Consequently, looking at the two sides of the coin, it concisely discusses the polarity of the absence of any statutory recognition of AI and its impact.spa
dc.rights.creativecommonsAtribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadasspa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationAcemoglu, Daron and Pascual Restrepo. “Robots and Jobs: Evidence from US Labor Markets,” NBER Working Paper No. 23285, Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2017.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationAI Now Report. The Social and Economic Implications of Artificial Intelligence Technologies in the Near-Term. A summary of the AI Now public symposium, hosted by the White House and New York University’s Information Law Institute, July 7th, 2016. Version 1.0, 22 September, 2016, https://artificialintelligencenow.com.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationAngwin, Julia, Jeff Larson, Surya Mattu and Lauren Kirchner. “Machine bias.” ProPublica (23 May 2016). https://www.propublica.org/article/machine-bias-risk-assessments-in-criminal-sentencing.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationArntz, Melanie, Terry Gregory and Ulrich Zierahn. The Risk of Automation for Jobs in OECD Countries. A Comparative Analysis. Paris: OECD, 2016. http://www.ifuturo.org/sites/default/files/docs/automation.pdfspa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationArthur, W. Brian. The nature of technology: What it is and how it evolves. London: Allen Lane, 2009.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationBerloznik, Robby, Raf Casert, Robby Deboelpaep et al. eds. Technology Assessment on Converging Technologies. Brussels: European Parliament, STOA, 2006.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationBiocca, Frank. “Media and the laws of mind.” Preface to G. Riva, F. Davide, andW. Ijsselsteijn, eds. Being There: Concepts, effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2003, v-ix.Bostrom, Nick y Vincent C. Millar. “Future progress in artificial intelligence: A survey of expert opinion”. En Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence. Vincent C. Muller (ed.). Berlin, Springer: Synthese Library, 2016.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationBozdag, Engin. “Bias in algorithmic filtering and personalization”. Ethics and Information Technology 15, no. 3 (2013): 209-27.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationCattaneo, Gabriella, Giorgio Micheletti, Alys Woodward, and David Osimo. European Data Market SMART 2013/0063 D 3.6 and D 3.7 Data Ownership and Access to Data–Key Emerging Issues. Final Release January 29, 2016.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationChristl, Wolfie and Sarah Spiekermann. Networks of Control. A Report on Corporate Surveillance, Digital Tracking, Big Data & Privacy. Vienna: Facultas, 2016.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationCitron, Danielle K., and Frank Pasquale. “The scored society: Due process for automated predictions”. Washington Law Review 89 (2014): 1; University of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-8. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2376209spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationCoeckelbergh, Mark. “Health care, capabilities, and AI assistive technologies”. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13, no. 2 (2010): 181-90.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationCouncil of Europe. Young people combating hate speech on-line. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, April 15, 2012.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationDonahoe, Eileen. “So Software Has Eaten the World: What Does It Mean for Human Rights, Security & Governance? Part 1.” Human Rights Watch (March 22, 2016). https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/03/22/so-software-haseaten-world-what-does-it-mean-human-rights-security-governance.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationDuch-Brown, Nestor, Bertin Martens, and Frank Mueller-Langer. “The economics of ownership, access and trade in digital data”. JRC Working Papers on Digital Economy no. 2017-01. https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/iptdecwpa/2017-01.htmspa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationEskens, Sarah, Jelte Timmer, Linda Kool, and Rinie van Est. Beyond control. Exploratory study on the discourse in Silicon Valley about consumer privacy in the Internet of Things. The Hague: Rathenau Instituut, 2016. https://pure.uva.nl/ws/files/2779138/176164_Beyond_Control_Final_04042016.pdfspa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationEuropean Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS). Opinion 4/2017 on the Proposal for a Directive on certain aspects concerning contracts for the supply of digital content (14 March 2017).spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationEuropean Parliament Committee on Legal Affairs (JURI Committee). Report with recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics (2015/2103[INL]) (27 January 2017).spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationEyal, Nir and Ryan Hoover. Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products. New York: Penguin Random House, 2014.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationFinders, Karl. “IPsoft gives automation platform a face”. ComputerWeekly.com (September 30, 2014). https://www.computerweekly.com/news/2240231755/IPsoft-givesautomation-platform-a-face [Accessed 29 June 2016].spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationFrey, Carl Benedict and Michael A. Osborne. The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerization? Oxford: Oxford Martin School, 2013.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationFuchs, Michael. “Session 2 - Technology, intervention and control of individuals”. Emerging technologies and human rights. International Symposium, Strasbourg, 4-5 May 2015.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationGarvie, Clare, Alvaro Bedoya, and Jonathan Frankle. The perpetual line-up: Unregulated police face recognition in America. Georgetown Law Center on Privacy & Technology (18 October 2016). www.perpetuallineup.org.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationHorvitz, Eric. “One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence: Reflections and Framing.” Microsoft.com (January 1, 2014). https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/publication/one-hundred-year-study-artificial-intelligence-reflections-framing/spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationInternational Working Group on Data Protection in Telecommunications (Berlin Telecom Group). Working Paper on Web Tracking and Privacy. Respect for Context, Transparency and Control Remains Essential. 53rd meeting, Prague, April 15-16, 2013.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationKaminski, Margot E. and Shane Witnov. “The Conforming Effect: First Amendment Implications of Surveillance, Beyond Chilling Speech.” University of Richmond Law Review 49 (2015); Ohio State Public Law Working Paper No. 288. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2550385.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationKoebler, Jason. “Why American farmers are hacking their tractors with Ukrainian firmware”. Motherboard (March 21, 2017), https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/why-american-farmers-arehacking-their-tractors-with-ukrainian-firmware.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationKool, Linda, Jelte Timmer, and Rinie van Est, eds. Sincere support: The rise of the e-coach. The Hague: Rathenau Instituut, 2015. https://www.rathenau.nl/nl/publicatie/sincere-support-rise-e -coach.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationKoops, Bert-Jaap, Angela Di Carlo, Luca Nocco, et al. “Robotic technologies and fundamental rights: Robotics challenging the European constitutional framework”. International Journal of Technoethics 4, no. 2 (2013): 15-35.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationKosinski, Michal, David Stillwell, and Thore Graepel. “Private traits and attributes are predictable from digital records of human behavior”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 110, no. 15 (2013): 5802-5.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationKranzberg, Melvin. “Technology and History: ‘Kranzberg’s Laws’.” Technology and Culture 27, no. 3 (1986): 544-60.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationLeroux, Christophe, and Roberto Labruto. D3.2.1 Ethical legal and societal issues in robotics. euRobotics The European Robotics Coordination Action (December 31, 2012). http://www.eurobotics-project.eu/cms/upload/PDF/euRobotics_Deliverable_D.3.2.1_ELS_IssuesInRobotics.pdfspa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationLevin, McCorduck, Moerel E.M.L. and J.E.J. Prins. “Privacy voor de homo digitalis”. En: Homo Digitalis. E.M.L. Moerel, J.E.J. Prins, M. Hildebrandt, T.F.E TjongTjin Tai, G-J. Zwenne and A.H.J. Schmidt (eds.). Handelingen Nederlandse Juristen-Vereniging146e jaargang/2016-I. Wolters Kluwer, 2016.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationLevin, Sam, and Nicky Woolf. “Tesla driver killed while using autopilot was watching Harry Potter,” The Guardian (1 July 2016). https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jul/01/tesla-driver-killed-autopilot-self-driving-car-harry-potterspa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationO’Manique, Colleen. “The ‘Securitization’ of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: A critical feminist lens.” In A Decade of Human Security: Global Governance and New Multilateralisms, Sandra J. Maclean, David R. Black, and Timothy M. Shaw (eds.). New York: Ashgate Press, 2006, 161-178.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationPariser, Eli. The filter bubble: What the Internet is hiding from you. London: Penguin Books, 2011.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationPurdy, Mark, and Ladan Davarzani. “The Growth Game-Changer: How the Industrial Internet of Things Can Drive Progress and Prosperity,” Accenture, 2015. https://www.accenture.com/_acnmedia/Accenture/Conversion-Assets/DotCom/Documents/Global/PDF/Dualpub_18/Accenture-Executive-Summary-Growth-Game-Changer-IndustrialInternet.pdf [Accessed 29 June 2016].spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationRouvroy, Antoinette. “‘Of data and men.’ Fundamental rights and freedoms in a world of big data.” Council of Europe, Directorate General of Human Rights and Rule of Law l, T-PD-BUR(2015)09REV (2016). http://works.bepress.com/antoinette_rouvroy/64/spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationScherer, Matthew U. “Regulating artificial intelligence systems: Risks, challenges, competencies, and strategies”. Harvard Journal of Law and Technology 29, no. 2 (2016).spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationSchneier, Bruce. “The Public-Private Surveillance Partnership”. Schneier on Security (August 5, 2013). https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2013/08/the_publicpriva_1.htmlScience and Technology Options Assessment (STOA). Ethical Aspects of Cyber-Physical Systems. Scientific Foresight Study. Brussels: European Parliament, 2016.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationScott, James C. Seeing like a State. Yale University Press, 1999.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationSharkey, Amanda, and Noel Sharkey. “Granny and the robots: Ethical issues in robot care for elderly.” Ethics and Information Technology 14, no. 1 (2012): 27-40.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationSong, Won-Kyung, and Jongbae Kim. “Novel assistive robot for self-feeding”. In: Robotic Systems - Applications, Control and Programming, edited by Ashish Dutta, 2012. https://www.intechopen.com/books/robotic-systems-applications-control-and-programming/novel-assistive-robot-for-self-feedingspa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationStahl, Bernd C., Job Timmermans, and Catherine Flick. “Ethics of emerging information and communication technologies: On the implementation of responsible research and innovation”. Science and Public Policy 44, no. 3 (2016): 1-13.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationStrand, Roger, and Matthias Kaiser. Report on ethical issues raised by emerging sciences and technologies. Norway: Centre for the Study of the Sciences and the Humanities, University of Bergen, 23 January 2015.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationSunstein, Cass R. Echo chambers: Bush v. Gore, impeachment, and beyond. Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2001.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationTantzen, Bryan. “Connected machines: Reducing unplanned downtime and improving service.” Cisco Blogs (October 6, 2015). https://blogs.cisco.com/manufacturing/connected-machines-reducing-downtime [Accessed 29 June 2016].spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationThe Senior Project. “Ethics of e-inclusion of older people.” Senior Discussion Paper no. 2008/01. (April 2008). http://www.cssc.eu/public/Ethics%20of%20e-Inclusion%20of%20older%20people%20- %20Bled%20%20Paper.pdf.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationTjong Tjin Tai, Eric. “Privaatrecht voor de homo digitalis: eigendom, gebruik en handhaving”. In Homo Digitalis. E.M.L. Moerel, J.E.J. Prins, M. Hildebrandt, et al. Schmidt Handelingen Nederlandse Juristen-Vereniging 146e jaargang/2016-I. Wolters Kluwer, 2016.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationTurkle, Sherry. Alone together: Why we expect more from technology and less from each other. New York: Basic Books, 2011.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationTurkle, Sherry. Reclaiming conversation: The power of talk in a digital age. New York: Basic Books, 2015.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationUnited Nations Development Program. The Human Development Report. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationVan Alsenoy, B., V. Verdoodt, R. Heyman, E. Wauters, J. Ausloos y G. Acar. From social media service to advertising network. A critical analysis of Facebook’s revised policies and terms. KU Leuven Center for IT & IP Law - iMinds, Working Paper, version: 1.3 (2015). https://www.law.kuleuven.be/citip/en/news/item/icri-cir-advises-belgian-privacy-commission-in-facebookinvestigation.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationVan de Poel, Ibo, and Lamber Royakkers. Ethics, technology, and engineering: An introduction. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationVan Est, Rinie, and Dirk Stemerding (eds.) European governance challenges in bioengineering – Making perfect life: Bio-engineering (in) the 21st century. Final report. Brussels: European Parliament, STOA, 2012. https://www.rathenau.nl/nl/publicatie/making-perfect-life-final-report.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationVan Est, Rinie, Dirk Stemerdink, Virgil Rerimassie, Mirjam Schuijff, Jelte Timmer, and Frans Brom. From bio to NBIC – From medical practice to daily life. Report written for Council of Europe, Committee on Bioethics. The Hague: Rathenau Instituut, 2014. https://www.rathenau.nl/nl/publicatie/bio-nbic-convergencemedical-practice-daily-life.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationVan Est, Rinie, Jelte Timmer, Linda Kool, et al. Rules for the digital human park: Two paradigmatic cases of breeding and taming human beings: Human germline editing and persuasive technology. Background Paper for the 11th Global Summit of National Ethics/ Bioethics Commissions, Berlin, March 16-18, 2016. https://www.rathenau.nl/nl/publicatie/regels-voor-het-digitale-mensenpark.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationVan Est, Rinie, Virgil Rerimassie, Ira van Keulen, and Gaston Dorren. Intimate technology: The battle for our body and behaviour. The Hague: Rathenau Instituut, 2014. https://www.rathenau.nl/en/publication/intimate-technology-battly-our-body-and-behaviour.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationWachter, Sandra, Brent Mittelstadt, and Luciano Floridi. Why a right to explanation of automated decision-making does not exist in the general data protection regulation. (December 28, 2016). https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2903469.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationWeisberg, Jacob. “We are hopelessly hooked”. The New York Review of Books (February 2016): 6-9, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2016/02/25/we-are-hopelessly-hooked/spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationYlimaula, Anssi, Peter H.M.P. Roelofsma, and Leo Versteeg. Deliverable 3.2. Ethical and legal requirements. Amsterdam: Center of Advanced Media Research & Department of Social Gerontology, VUA University, 2010.spa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationZentner, Manfred. “Education for participation in a digitalised world”. Youth Partnership – Partnership between the European Commission and the Council of Europe in the field of youth. Report. Symposium on youth participation in a digitalised world. Budapest (14-16 September 2015). https://pjp-eu.coe.int/documents/1017981/8525351/Education%E2%80%93+participation-digitalised-world.pdf/212f8046-1274-4575-9834-b261bab9697fspa
dcterms.bibliographicCitationZuiderveen Borgesius, Frederik. Improving privacy protection in the area of behavioural targeting. Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2014.spa
dc.type.dcmi-type-vocabularyTextspa
dc.type.driverinfo:eu-repo/semantics/articlespa
dc.type.versioninfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersionspa
dc.subject.proposalARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCEspa
dc.subject.proposalHUMAN RIGHTSspa
dc.subject.proposalSERVICE SECTORspa
dc.subject.proposalLABOR INDUSTRYspa
dc.subject.proposalEQUITYspa
dc.subject.proposalINTELIGENCIA ARTIFICIALspa
dc.subject.proposalDERECHOS HUMANOSspa
dc.subject.proposalSECTOR SERVICIOSspa
dc.subject.proposalINDUSTRIA LABORALspa
dc.subject.proposalEQUIDADspa
Appears in Collections:CAG. Novum Jus

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Artificial intelligence and human right.pdfArtículo en ingles1.98 MBAdobe PDFThumbnail
View/Open


This item is protected by original copyright



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.